In order to provide easy access to essential aspects of the interface between Religion/Spirituality and Psychiatry, we provide here essentially open access materials that provide overview of the empirical data and discussions on the subject.



– Papers

Forum – The Complex Interplay between Religion and Mental Illness

. Discussion paper:

Understanding and addressing religion among people with mental illness
Pargament KI, Lomax JW.
World Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;12(1):26-32

. Commentaries:

Religiosity, a personality trait to be reckoned within psychiatry
van Praag HM.
World Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;12(1):33-4

Religion and mental health: the contribution of anthropology
Dein SL.
World Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;12(1):34-5

Spiritual assessment as part of routine psychiatric evaluation: problems and implications
Huguelet P, Mandhouj O.
World Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;12(1):35-6

Religion and health: the more we know the more we need to know
Moreira-Almeida A.
World Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;12(1):37-8.

Disentangling complexities in the relationship between religion and psychiatry
López-Ibor JJ Jr, López-Ibor MI, González-Vives S, García-Albea J.
World Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;12(1):42.

A “complex” subject matter asks for a clear lead
Verhagen PJ.
World Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;12(1):43.

The importance of ternary awareness for overcoming the inadequacies of contemporary psychiatry
Cloninger CR
Arch Clin Psychiatry 2013, 40(3):110-113

Clinical implications of spirituality to mental health: review of evidence and practical guidelines
Moreira-Almeida A, Koenig HG, Lucchetti G.
Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2014 Apr-Jun;36(2):176-82

Conceptualising spirituality for medical research and health service provision
King MB, Koenig HG.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2009 Jul 13;9:116.

Religious and spiritual interventions in mental health care: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials
Gonçalves JP, Lucchetti G, Menezes PR, Vallada H.
Psychol Med. 2015 Jul 23:1-13

Complementary spiritist therapy: systematic review of scientific evidence
Lucchetti G, Lucchetti AL, Bassi RM, Nobre MR.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:835945.

Near-death experiences in cardiac arrest: implications for the concept of non-local mind
Trent-Von Haesler N, Beauregard M
Arch Clin Psychiatry 2013, 40(5): 197-202.

The science of well-being: an integrated approach to mental health and its disorders
Cloninger CR.
World Psychiatry 5(2):71-6, 2006

Religiousness and spirituality in fibromyalgia and chronic pain patients
Alexander Moreira-Almeida & Harold G Koenig
Current Pain and Headache Reports 12(5):327-32, 2008

Religiousness and mental health: a review
Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Francisco Lotufo Neto, Harold G Koenig
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 28(3):242-50, 2006

Religion, spirituality and psychiatry: a new era in mental health care
Harold G. Koenig
Arch Clin Psychiatry 2007, vol.34, suppl.1, p.5-7

Religion, spirituality and psychotic disorders
Harold G. Koenig
Arch Clin Psychiatry., 2007, vol.34, suppl.1, p.95-104

Workings of the human spirit in palliative care situations: a consensus model from the Chaplaincy Research Consortium
Emanuel L, Handzo G, Grant G, Massey K, Zollfrank A, Wilke D, Powell R, Smith W, Pargament K.
BMC Palliat Care. 2015 Jun 2;14:29

The contribution of faith-based health organisations to public health
Cristiane Schumann, André Stroppa and Alexander Moreira-Almeida
International Psychiatry, 2011; 8(3): 62-4

Spirituality, religiousness and psychotherapy
Julio Fernando Prieto Peres, Manoel José Pereira Simão, Antonia Gladys Nasello
Rev. psiquiatr. clín., 2007, vol.34, suppl.1, p.136-145

Differential diagnosis between non-pathological psychotic and spiritual experiences and mental disorders: a contribution from Latin American studies to the ICD-11
Moreira-Almeida A, Cardeña E
Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr. 2011, 33 (suppl.1): s21-s28.

Religion, spirituality, and psychosis
Menezes A Jr, Moreira-Almeida A.
Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2010 Jun;12(3):174-9

Differential diagnosis between spiritual experiences and mental disorders of religious content
Menezes Junior, Adair de & Moreira-Almeida, Alexander.
Arch Clin Psychiatry., 36(2): 75-82, 2009.

Near-death experience: clinical implications
Bruce Greyson
Arch Clin Psychiatry., 2007, vol.34, suppl.1, p.116-125

Spirituality and science: a personal view
Andrew Powell
Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 7: 319-21, 2001.

Religious psychopathology: The prevalence of religious content of delusions and hallucinations in mental disorder
Cook CC.
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2015 Jun;61(4):404-25.

Religiosity, spirituality in relation to disordered eating and body image concerns: A systematic review
Akrawi D, Bartrop R, Potter U, Touyz S.
J Eat Disord. 2015 Aug 15;3:29.

The Lancet series in Faith-based health-care
The Lancet, 386 (10005), 2014.

Arch Clin Psychiatry special issue in Spirituality and Health
Arch Clin Psychiatry 34(suppl.1), 2007

Towards a multidisciplinary guideline religiousness, spirituality, and psychiatry: what do we need?
Arjan W. Braam
Mental Health, Religion & Culture. Published online: 12 Oct 2017


– Books:

. Book produced by the Section:

Religion and Psychiatry: Beyond Boundaries. Edited by Peter J. Verhagen, Herman M van Praag, Juan J. López-Ibor, John L. Cox and Driss Moussaoui. Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

. Other books:

Oxford Textbook of Spirituality in Healthcare, edited by Mark Cobb, Christine M. Puchalski, Bruce Rumbold. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2012; 501pp., ISBN 978-0-19-957139-0.

Handbook of Religion and Health, edited by Harold G. Koenig, Dana E. King, Verna Benner Carson. New York: Oxford University Press 2012; 1169 pp., ISBN 978-0-19-533595-8.

Exploring the Fronties of the Mind-Brain Relationship, edited by Alexander Moreira-Almeida & Franklin Santana Santos. New York: Springer 2012; 243 pp., ISBN 978-1-4614-0646-4.

APA Handbook of Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality. edited by Kenneth I. Pargament, PhD. American Psychological Association, 2013; 1449 pp. ISBN: 978-1-4338-1077-0

Spirituality and Psychiatry. Edited by Chris Cook, Andrew Powell and Andrew Sims. RCPsych, 2009; 318pp. ISBN: 9781904671718

Sharma A (ed): Spirituality and Mental Health: Reflections of the Past, Applications in the Present, Projections for the Future.  Indian Psychiatric Society. New Delhi, Mount Abu, Om Shanti Press, 2009


– Research tools: links to open access R/S research instruments in several languages

. English:

Measurement of religiosity/spirituality in adolescent health outcomes research: trends and recommendations.
Cotton S, McGrady ME, Rosenthal SL.
J Relig Health. 2010 Dec;49(4):414-44

Belief into Action Scale: A comprehensive and sensitive measure of religious involvement
Koenig HG, Wang Z, Al Zaben F, Adi A
Religions 2015; 6(3):1006-1016


. Portuguese:

Measuring spirituality and religiosity in clinical research: a systematic review of instruments available in the Portuguese language.
Lucchetti G, Lucchetti AL, Vallada H.
Sao Paulo Med J. 2013;131(2):112-22

Development and validation of the Intrinsic Religiousness Inventory (IRI)
Taunay TC, Cristino ED, Machado MO, Rola FH, Lima JW, Macêdo DS, Gondim Fde A, Moreira-Almeida A, Carvalho AF.
Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2012 Mar;34(1):76-81

Versão em Português da Escala de Religiosidade da Duke DUREL.
Moreira-Almeida, A ; Peres MF ; Aloe F ; Lotufo Neto, Francisco ; Koenig,Harold G.
Arch Clin Psychiatry, 2008, vol.35, no.1, p.31-32.

Validação da versão brasileira da escala de religiosidade de Duke (DUREL)
Taunay TCD, Gondim FAA, Macêdo DS, Moreira-Almeida A, Gurgel LA, Andrade LMS, Carvalho AF
Arch Clin Psychiatry 2012; 39 (4):130-135

Propriedades da Escala de Religiosidade de Duke em uma amostra de pós-graduandos.
Martinez EZ, Santos Almeida RG, Carvalho ACD
Rev Psiq Clín. 2012;39:180

Adaptação transcultural e avaliação da consistência interna da versão em português da Spirituality Self Rating Scale (SSRS)
Goncalves, Angélica Martins de Souza & Pillon, Sandra Cristina.
Arch Clin Psychiatry 36(1): 10-15, 2009

Escala de coping religioso-espiritual (Escala CRE): elaboração e validação de construto
Panzini, Raquel Gehrke and Bandeira, Denise Ruschel
Psicol. estud., Dez 2005, vol.10, no.3, p.507-516

Brazilian validation of the Quality of Life Instrument/spirituality, religion and personal beliefs.
Panzini RG, Maganha C, Rocha NS, Bandeira DR, Fleck MP.
Rev Saude Publica. 2011 Feb;45(1):153-65

– Videos:

Anxiety and spirituality – Prof. Bernard van Rensburg MD, PhD

Beyond a reductionist view of human being – Prof. Robert Cloninger MD, PhD

Depression and Spirituality: what research says? – Prof. Alexander Moreira-Almeida MD, PhD

Differentiating Spiritual Experiences from Mental – Prof. Alexander Moreira-Almeida MD, PhD

Does Religion Matter for Our Well-Being? – Prof. Jeff Levin PhD

Dogmatism in science and in religion – Dr. Andrew Pinsent MA DPhil STB PhD

Gap in addressing spiritual needs of patients – Prof. Alexander Moreira-Almeida MD, PhD

History and philosophy of scientific research on spirituality – Alexandre Sech Jr MA

How to assess patients’ spirituality? How to take a spiritual history? – Prof. Alexander Moreira-Almeida MD, PhD

Hinduism and Mental Health – Prof. Dinesh Bhugra MBBS, FRCPsych, PhD

Impact of the concepts of Mind and Spirituality in Psychiatry – Prof. German Berrios DipPhilSci (Oxon); MA (Oxon; Cantab); MB, CHB; MD

Mental health professionals and faith communities partnership – Prof. Alan Fung PhD, MD

5 Myths in Science and Spirituality – Introduction– Prof. Alexander Moreira-Almeida MD, PhD

Myth of perennial religion/science conflict – Prof. Ronald L. Numbers PhD

Prospective studies in depression and religion – Dr. Arjan Braam MD, PhD

Relationships between spirituality and depression – Dr. Arjan Braam MD, PhD

Spirituality Interest Group, Royal College of Psychiatrists – Dr. John Cox, DM (Oxon), FRCPsych

Spirituality and the World Psychiatric Association – Prof. Dinesh Bhugra MBBS, FRCPsych, PhD

Spirituality of Chinese communities and mental health – Prof. Alan Fung PhD, MD

Spirituality and chronic pain – Dr. Mario Peres MD, PhD

Spirituality and health: promising research lines – Prof. Alexander Moreira-Almeida MD, PhD

Suicide and Spirituality – reviewing the evidence– Prof. Alexander Moreira-Almeida MD, PhD

What is spirituality for Jung? -Dr. Anahy Fonseca MD

What is well-being? – Prof. Robert Cloninger MD, PhD

Which religious dimensions have been most investigated? – Prof. Alexander Moreira-Almeida MD, PhD


TV NUPES is a YouTube channel fully devoted to videos on Spirituality and Science, especially to issues related to health.


– National Psychiatry Associations with Sections in Spirituality

Brazil: Brazilian Psychiatric Association – Committee for Studies and Research in Spirituality and Mental Health

South Africa: South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP) – Spirituality and Psychiatry Special Interest Group (S&P SIG)

UK: Royal College of Psychiatrists -Spirituality and Psychiatry Special Interest Group (SPSIG)

USA: American Psychiatric Association (APA) – Caucus on Spirituality, Religion and Psychiatry


– University groups in R/S and Psychiatry

Duke University – Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health (USA)

Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF)- Research Center in Spirituality and Health (NUPES), Brazil

George Washington University – The George Washington Institute for Spirituality and Health (GWISH), USA

Durham University – Project for Spirituality, Theology & Health, UK

University of Virginia – Division of Perceptual Studies (DOPS), USA