In order to provide easy access to essential aspects of the interface between Religion/Spirituality and Psychiatry, we provide here essentially open access materials that provide overview of the empirical data and discussions on the subject.



– Papers

Forum – The Complex Interplay between Religion and Mental Illness

. Discussion paper:

Understanding and addressing religion among people with mental illness
Pargament KI, Lomax JW.
World Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;12(1):26-32

. Commentaries:

Religiosity, a personality trait to be reckoned within psychiatry
van Praag HM.
World Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;12(1):33-4

Religion and mental health: the contribution of anthropology
Dein SL.
World Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;12(1):34-5

Spiritual assessment as part of routine psychiatric evaluation: problems and implications
Huguelet P, Mandhouj O.
World Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;12(1):35-6

Religion and health: the more we know the more we need to know
Moreira-Almeida A.
World Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;12(1):37-8.

Disentangling complexities in the relationship between religion and psychiatry
López-Ibor JJ Jr, López-Ibor MI, González-Vives S, García-Albea J.
World Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;12(1):42.

A “complex” subject matter asks for a clear lead
Verhagen PJ.
World Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;12(1):43.

The importance of ternary awareness for overcoming the inadequacies of contemporary psychiatry
Cloninger CR
Arch Clin Psychiatry 2013, 40(3):110-113

Clinical implications of spirituality to mental health: review of evidence and practical guidelines
Moreira-Almeida A, Koenig HG, Lucchetti G.
Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2014 Apr-Jun;36(2):176-82

Conceptualising spirituality for medical research and health service provision
King MB, Koenig HG.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2009 Jul 13;9:116.

Religious and spiritual interventions in mental health care: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials
Gonçalves JP, Lucchetti G, Menezes PR, Vallada H.
Psychol Med. 2015 Jul 23:1-13

Complementary spiritist therapy: systematic review of scientific evidence
Lucchetti G, Lucchetti AL, Bassi RM, Nobre MR.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:835945.

Near-death experiences in cardiac arrest: implications for the concept of non-local mind
Trent-Von Haesler N, Beauregard M
Arch Clin Psychiatry 2013, 40(5): 197-202.

The science of well-being: an integrated approach to mental health and its disorders
Cloninger CR.
World Psychiatry 5(2):71-6, 2006

Religiousness and spirituality in fibromyalgia and chronic pain patients
Alexander Moreira-Almeida & Harold G Koenig
Current Pain and Headache Reports 12(5):327-32, 2008

Religiousness and mental health: a review
Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Francisco Lotufo Neto, Harold G Koenig
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 28(3):242-50, 2006

Religion, spirituality and psychiatry: a new era in mental health care
Harold G. Koenig
Arch Clin Psychiatry 2007, vol.34, suppl.1, p.5-7

Religion, spirituality and psychotic disorders
Harold G. Koenig
Arch Clin Psychiatry., 2007, vol.34, suppl.1, p.95-104

Workings of the human spirit in palliative care situations: a consensus model from the Chaplaincy Research Consortium
Emanuel L, Handzo G, Grant G, Massey K, Zollfrank A, Wilke D, Powell R, Smith W, Pargament K.
BMC Palliat Care. 2015 Jun 2;14:29

The contribution of faith-based health organisations to public health
Cristiane Schumann, André Stroppa and Alexander Moreira-Almeida
International Psychiatry, 2011; 8(3): 62-4

Spirituality, religiousness and psychotherapy
Julio Fernando Prieto Peres, Manoel José Pereira Simão, Antonia Gladys Nasello
Rev. psiquiatr. clín., 2007, vol.34, suppl.1, p.136-145

Differential diagnosis between non-pathological psychotic and spiritual experiences and mental disorders: a contribution from Latin American studies to the ICD-11
Moreira-Almeida A, Cardeña E
Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr. 2011, 33 (suppl.1): s21-s28.

Religion, spirituality, and psychosis
Menezes A Jr, Moreira-Almeida A.
Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2010 Jun;12(3):174-9

Differential diagnosis between spiritual experiences and mental disorders of religious content
Menezes Junior, Adair de & Moreira-Almeida, Alexander.
Arch Clin Psychiatry., 36(2): 75-82, 2009.

Near-death experience: clinical implications
Bruce Greyson
Arch Clin Psychiatry., 2007, vol.34, suppl.1, p.116-125

Spirituality and science: a personal view
Andrew Powell
Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 7: 319-21, 2001.

Religious psychopathology: The prevalence of religious content of delusions and hallucinations in mental disorder
Cook CC.
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2015 Jun;61(4):404-25.

Religiosity, spirituality in relation to disordered eating and body image concerns: A systematic review
Akrawi D, Bartrop R, Potter U, Touyz S.
J Eat Disord. 2015 Aug 15;3:29.

The Lancet series in Faith-based health-care
The Lancet, 386 (10005), 2014.

Arch Clin Psychiatry special issue in Spirituality and Health
Arch Clin Psychiatry 34(suppl.1), 2007

Towards a multidisciplinary guideline religiousness, spirituality, and psychiatry: what do we need?
Arjan W. Braam
This paper has been presented at the XVI World Congress of Psychiatry, Session “Consensus and Position Statements on Psychiatry, Religion and Spirituality”, September 16, 2014, Madrid, Spain.
Published online: 12 Oct 2017


– Books:

. Book produced by the Section:

Religion and Psychiatry: Beyond Boundaries. Edited by Peter J. Verhagen, Herman M van Praag, Juan J. López-Ibor, John L. Cox and Driss Moussaoui. Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

. Other books:

Oxford Textbook of Spirituality in Healthcare, edited by Mark Cobb, Christine M. Puchalski, Bruce Rumbold. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2012; 501pp., ISBN 978-0-19-957139-0.

Handbook of Religion and Health, edited by Harold G. Koenig, Dana E. King, Verna Benner Carson. New York: Oxford University Press 2012; 1169 pp., ISBN 978-0-19-533595-8.

Exploring the Fronties of the Mind-Brain Relationship, edited by Alexander Moreira-Almeida & Franklin Santana Santos. New York: Springer 2012; 243 pp., ISBN 978-1-4614-0646-4.

APA Handbook of Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality. edited by Kenneth I. Pargament, PhD. American Psychological Association, 2013; 1449 pp. ISBN: 978-1-4338-1077-0

Spirituality and Psychiatry. Edited by Chris Cook, Andrew Powell and Andrew Sims. RCPsych, 2009; 318pp. ISBN: 9781904671718

Sharma A (ed): Spirituality and Mental Health: Reflections of the Past, Applications in the Present, Projections for the Future.  Indian Psychiatric Society. New Delhi, Mount Abu, Om Shanti Press, 2009


– Research tools: links to open access R/S research instruments in several languages

. English:

Measurement of religiosity/spirituality in adolescent health outcomes research: trends and recommendations.
Cotton S, McGrady ME, Rosenthal SL.
J Relig Health. 2010 Dec;49(4):414-44

Belief into Action Scale: A comprehensive and sensitive measure of religious involvement
Koenig HG, Wang Z, Al Zaben F, Adi A
Religions 2015; 6(3):1006-1016


. Portuguese:

Measuring spirituality and religiosity in clinical research: a systematic review of instruments available in the Portuguese language.
Lucchetti G, Lucchetti AL, Vallada H.
Sao Paulo Med J. 2013;131(2):112-22

Development and validation of the Intrinsic Religiousness Inventory (IRI)
Taunay TC, Cristino ED, Machado MO, Rola FH, Lima JW, Macêdo DS, Gondim Fde A, Moreira-Almeida A, Carvalho AF.
Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2012 Mar;34(1):76-81

Versão em Português da Escala de Religiosidade da Duke DUREL.
Moreira-Almeida, A ; Peres MF ; Aloe F ; Lotufo Neto, Francisco ; Koenig,Harold G.
Arch Clin Psychiatry, 2008, vol.35, no.1, p.31-32.

Validação da versão brasileira da escala de religiosidade de Duke (DUREL)
Taunay TCD, Gondim FAA, Macêdo DS, Moreira-Almeida A, Gurgel LA, Andrade LMS, Carvalho AF
Arch Clin Psychiatry 2012; 39 (4):130-135

Propriedades da Escala de Religiosidade de Duke em uma amostra de pós-graduandos.
Martinez EZ, Santos Almeida RG, Carvalho ACD
Rev Psiq Clín. 2012;39:180

Adaptação transcultural e avaliação da consistência interna da versão em português da Spirituality Self Rating Scale (SSRS)
Goncalves, Angélica Martins de Souza & Pillon, Sandra Cristina.
Arch Clin Psychiatry 36(1): 10-15, 2009

Escala de coping religioso-espiritual (Escala CRE): elaboração e validação de construto
Panzini, Raquel Gehrke and Bandeira, Denise Ruschel
Psicol. estud., Dez 2005, vol.10, no.3, p.507-516

Brazilian validation of the Quality of Life Instrument/spirituality, religion and personal beliefs.
Panzini RG, Maganha C, Rocha NS, Bandeira DR, Fleck MP.
Rev Saude Publica. 2011 Feb;45(1):153-65

– Videos:

Anxiety and spirituality – Prof. Bernard van Rensburg MD, PhD

Beyond a reductionist view of human being – Prof. Robert Cloninger MD, PhD

Depression and Spirituality: what research says? – Prof. Alexander Moreira-Almeida MD, PhD

Differentiating Spiritual Experiences from Mental – Prof. Alexander Moreira-Almeida MD, PhD

Does Religion Matter for Our Well-Being? – Prof. Jeff Levin PhD

Dogmatism in science and in religion – Dr. Andrew Pinsent MA DPhil STB PhD

Gap in addressing spiritual needs of patients – Prof. Alexander Moreira-Almeida MD, PhD

History and philosophy of scientific research on spirituality – Alexandre Sech Jr MA

How to assess patients’ spirituality? How to take a spiritual history? – Prof. Alexander Moreira-Almeida MD, PhD

Hinduism and Mental Health – Prof. Dinesh Bhugra MBBS, FRCPsych, PhD

Impact of the concepts of Mind and Spirituality in Psychiatry – Prof. German Berrios DipPhilSci (Oxon); MA (Oxon; Cantab); MB, CHB; MD

Mental health professionals and faith communities partnership – Prof. Alan Fung PhD, MD

5 Myths in Science and Spirituality – Introduction– Prof. Alexander Moreira-Almeida MD, PhD

Myth of perennial religion/science conflict – Prof. Ronald L. Numbers PhD

Prospective studies in depression and religion – Dr. Arjan Braam MD, PhD

Relationships between spirituality and depression – Dr. Arjan Braam MD, PhD

Spirituality Interest Group, Royal College of Psychiatrists – Dr. John Cox, DM (Oxon), FRCPsych

Spirituality and the World Psychiatric Association – Prof. Dinesh Bhugra MBBS, FRCPsych, PhD

Spirituality of Chinese communities and mental health – Prof. Alan Fung PhD, MD

Spirituality and chronic pain – Dr. Mario Peres MD, PhD

Spirituality and health: promising research lines – Prof. Alexander Moreira-Almeida MD, PhD

Suicide and Spirituality – reviewing the evidence– Prof. Alexander Moreira-Almeida MD, PhD

What is spirituality for Jung? -Dr. Anahy Fonseca MD

What is well-being? – Prof. Robert Cloninger MD, PhD

Which religious dimensions have been most investigated? – Prof. Alexander Moreira-Almeida MD, PhD


TV NUPES is a YouTube channel fully devoted to videos on Spirituality and Science, especially to issues related to health.


– National Psychiatry Associations with Sections in Spirituality

Brazil: Brazilian Psychiatric Association – Committee for Studies and Research in Spirituality and Mental Health

South Africa: South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP) – Spirituality and Psychiatry Special Interest Group (S&P SIG)

UK: Royal College of Psychiatrists -Spirituality and Psychiatry Special Interest Group (SPSIG)

USA: American Psychiatric Association (APA) – Caucus on Spirituality, Religion and Psychiatry


– University groups in R/S and Psychiatry

Duke University – Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health (USA)

Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF)- Research Center in Spirituality and Health (NUPES), Brazil

George Washington University – The George Washington Institute for Spirituality and Health (GWISH), USA

Durham University – Project for Spirituality, Theology & Health, UK

University of Virginia – Division of Perceptual Studies (DOPS), USA